Electric Vehicle Technology Overview

Part 1: Vehicle Overview

Since its introduction, electric vehicle technology has advanced rapidly, and there are now numerous plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle options on the market. But how do electric vehicles work and what are their benefits? Electric vehicle engineering courses can make it clear. 

Let’s start with the most traditional vehicle technology: the internal combustion engine, or ICE. This vehicle is powered by a combustion engine that can only run on gasoline. The technology is conventional, well-established, and dependable, but it consumes a lot of gasoline, which can be expensive in a variety of ways.

Part 2: Vehicle Ranges

Because each vehicle type incorporates different technologies, the range over which these vehicles can travel varies. ICE vehicles, which run solely on gasoline, can typically travel 350 to 450 miles on a single tank of gas.

Hybrid electric vehicles use less gasoline and typically have a range of 550 to 700 miles. They do have a battery and an electric motor, but the battery is only charged during a typical drive cycle and is not a primary source of propulsion. 

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle’s larger battery allows it to operate in all-electric mode, typically travelling 20 to 40 miles on electricity alone. PHEVs are intended to support average daily commutes as well as simple overnight charging via a standard outlet. 

Finally, with a typical battery range of 150 to 300 miles, a battery-electric vehicle has the simplest and most efficient drivetrain. Part 3: EV Regenerative Braking Modes 

Regenerative braking is the most noticeable difference between driving an electric vehicle and a conventional ICE vehicle. 

Regenerative braking is achieved by operating the electric motor in reverse, thereby applying a braking force via electromagnetism. By charging the battery, some of the vehicle’s kinetic energy is recaptured. Some electric vehicle models have driving modes with varying levels of regenerative braking

When a driver removes their foot from the accelerator, an EV, such as the Tesla Model S, engages regenerative braking to slow the vehicle. The “Standard” setting provides the most regenerative braking power, capturing the most energy and reducing brake wear and tear. 

Part 4: PHEV Drivetrain Modes

PHEVs can incorporate regenerative braking and operate in a variety of driving modes because they have two completely separate drivetrains—electric and combustion. The Ford Fusion, for example, has three driving modes: “Auto EV,” “EV Now,” and “EV Later,” each with a specific purpose.

The “Auto EV” mode uses an optimised combination of battery energy and gasoline to make the best use of both fuel sources. This mode is ideal for highway travel at higher speeds.

Part 5: EVSE Types

There are three kinds of EVSE. The first is known as a Level 1 charger. These units are typically portable cord sets that operate on a standard 120-volt household outlet and provide 2 to 5 miles of range per hour of charging. This is the most affordable type of charger, but it has a limited daily range that it can provide to a vehicle. An electric vehicle design course can help you understand it. As a result, this application is most common for PHEVs with smaller batteries or BEV drivers who have a short daily commute to work.

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