What are the causes of male infertility?

If you are reading this, then it’s probably because you are struggling with male infertility, don’t worry, as you are not alone. WHO’s available data suggests that between 48 million couples and 186 million individuals have infertility globally.       

Thanks to medical advancements, infertility treatment is available readily in India. Dr. Himali Maniyar is one of the best IVF doctors in Ahmedabad, and she will discuss the causes of infertility in men.

Read on to know more about the causes of infertility in men,

Causes of infertility in men

We will be dividing the causes of infertility in men into different categories such as medical causes, lifestyle causes, and environmental causes.

Medical causes


Varicocele is the swelling of veins that drain the testicle. It is one of the most common causes of infertility in men. An abnormal blood flow is said to be the main cause of varicocele. For more information on the relationship between varicocele and infertility, you can ask Dr. Himali Maniyar, one of the best IVF doctors in Ahmedabad.


Non-malignant tumors can affect the male reproductive system through the pituitary glands that release hormones related to reproduction. In certain cases – surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy can affect the reproductive system of males.

Anti-sperm antibodies

These antibodies in the body mistakenly identify the sperms as harmful invaders and attempt to eliminate them.

Ejaculation problems

Retrograde ejaculation is defined as when the semen goes backward towards the bladder instead of coming out of your body through the tip of the penis. This condition can be caused due to various reasons such as spinal injuries, medication, or surgery on the bladder, prostate, or urethra. 

Hormone imbalance

An abnormality in the hormonal system can cause infertility. Issues with the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands can cause infertility.

Hormone imbalances such as low testosterone have possible underlying causes.


Certain infections can cause scarring of the testicles or block the passage of sperms. Infections that cause inflammation of the epididymis and the testicles can cause infertility in men. Sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and HIV causes infertility. 

Issues with sperm tubules

Sperms are transported through different tubes. These tubes can be blocked due to many reasons, such as injury from previous surgery, prior infection, or cystic fibrosis.

Blockage can occur at different levels, including – inside the testicles and tubes that connect the testicles and the urethra.

Congenital defect

In some males, during fetal development – one or both the testicles fail to descend from the abdomen to the sac that contains the testicles. This condition can cause infertility in men.

Issues with sexual intercourse

Issues such as erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, painful intercourse, or even psychological problems that interfere with sex can cause infertility problems among men.

Chromosome issues

Klinefelter’s syndrome is a genetic condition where the boy is born with an extra X chromosome instead of the usual X and Y chromosomes. This can cause abnormal development in the male reproductive system. Other genetic conditions include cystic fibrosis and Kallmann’s;s syndrome.

Celiac disease

Celiac disease is a digestive disorder caused by sensitivity to a protein found in wheat called gluten. The condition may contribute to male infertility. Fertility may improve after adopting a gluten-free diet. If you have any queries about celiac disease, you can ask the experts at clinicspots.

Previous surgeries

Certain surgeries such as vasectomy, scrotal surgery, testicular surgery, prostate surgery, and large abdominal surgery can prevent you from having a normal sperm count in your ejaculate.


Certain medications such as testosterone replacement surgery, cancer medications, ulcer drugs, arthritis drugs, and other medications can impair sperm production and cause infertility in men.

Lifestyle causes

Dr. Himali Maniyar, one of the best IVF doctor in Ahmedabad, briefs on some lifestyle choices that cause infertility in men.


Studies show that consuming alcohol can decrease fertility in men as it lowers testosterone levels, causes erectile function, and decreases sperm production.


 Using cocaine or marijuana can temporarily reduce the number and quality of your sperm. Anabolic steroids can cause the testicles to shrink and stop sperm production.


Men who smoke have lower sperm counts than those who don’t smoke.


Overweight and obesity can im[pair fertility in many ways – as it can impair the quality of the sperm.

Environment causes

Dr. Himali Maniyar says that exposure to certain environments can decrease sperm production. Some of the causes include:

Industrial chemical

Certain chemicals, painting materials, organic solvents, and herbicides can contribute to low sperm count.


Radiation exposure can reduce sperm count. Overexposure to radiation can permanently damage sperm production.

Overheating testicles

Elevated temperatures may impair sperm production and function. Although studies are limited and inconclusive, frequent use of saunas or hot tubs may temporarily impair your sperm count.


Though the exact cause of infertility can’t be found, the doctor might recommend treatments or procedures that will lead to conception.

Treatment for male infertility


A varicose can be surgically corrected. In cases where no sperm are present in the ejaculate, sperm can often be retrieved directly from the testicles or epididymis using sperm retrieval techniques.

Treating Infection

The doctor might give an antibiotic medication to cure a reproductive tract infection. But that does not restore fertility.

Hormone medications

Your doctor might recommend hormone replacement or medications in cases where infertility is caused by high or low levels of certain hormones or problems with the way the body uses hormones.

Assisted Reproductive Technology ( ART)

RT treatments involve obtaining sperm through normal ejaculation, surgical extraction, or donor individuals, depending on your specific case and wishes. The sperm is then inserted into the female genital tract or used to perform in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.


Don’t lose hope. If you are feeling very down, then you can contact your family and friends. You can also consider going for a counseling session for cognitive behavioral therapy; it will help you reduce stress and help you practice some relaxation techniques, suggests Dr. Himali Maniyar, one of the best IVF doctors in Ahmedabad. If you are residing in Ahmedabad then you can visit Nisha IVF hospital, which provides one of the best IVF treatment in Ahmedabad.

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