Thyroid cancer and its treatment in India

A cell growth that begins in the thyroid gland is called thyroid cancer. A butterfly-shaped gland called the thyroid can be found near the base of the neck, just below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid makes hormones that control body temperature, weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood flow.

Initially, thyroid cancer may not show any signs. However, as it develops, it may show symptoms like neck enlargement, voice changes, and trouble swallowing.

There are various varieties of thyroid cancer. Even while some varieties can be quite aggressive, the majority develop slowly. Treatment is often effective in curing thyroid malignancies.

In this article Dr. Sandeep Nayak, top oncologist in India will discuss thyroid tumor treatment in Bangalore

We’ll see more about thyroid cancer below,

What is Thyroid cancer?

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland at the base of your neck. The thyroid gland controls and regulates hormones that direct and affect the functions in the body, which include how you produce heat, use energy, and consume oxygen. This gland also controls your metabolism. 

Thyroid cancer develops when the cells mutate or begin to grow out of control and multiply in the thyroid. 

How common is Thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women. Worldwide, an estimated 586,202 people were diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2020.

Types of Thyroid cancer

Dr. Sandeep Nayk, one of the top oncologist in india will discuss the different types of thyroid cancer are as follows:

    • Papillary thyroid cancer: Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of cancer. This type of cancer grows slowly and spreads to the lymph nodes in the neck. This type of cancer is highly curable and rarely fatal.
    • Follicular: Follicular thyroid cancer accounts for up to 15 cancer diagnoses. This cancer spreads to the bones and organs like the lungs. 
  • Medullary:  About 2% of thyroid cancers are medullary. A quarter of people with medullary thyroid cancer have a family history. A faulty gene (genetic mutation) may be to blame.
  • Anaplastic: Anaplastic thyroid is the most aggressive and hardest to beat. This cancer can grow quickly and often spreads to the surrounding tissue and other body parts. This rare cancer type accounts for about 2% of thyroid cancer diagnoses.

Symptoms of Thyroid cancer

If you have thyroid cancer, you probably didn’t notice any signs of it in the early stages. That’s because there are very few symptoms in the beginning.

If you see any of the following, then you should consult your doctor, says Dr. Sandeep Nayak:

  • Neck, throat pain
  • Lump in your neck
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Vocal changes, hoarseness
  • Cough

Treatment for Thyroid cancer

The treatment for thyroid depends on the severity of the tumor, once the diagnosis is done the doctor will proceed with the further necessary treatment.

  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy medications administered intravenously or orally eradicate cancer cells and halt tumor growth. Chemotherapy is rarely necessary for thyroid cancer patients.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation kills cancer cells and stops them from growing. Internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy) involves placing radioactive seeds in or around the tumor. External radiation therapy uses a machine to deliver strong energy beams directly to the tumor site.
  • Surgery: The most popular form of treatment for thyroid cancer is surgery. Your surgeon may do a lobectomy or a whole thyroidectomy, depending on the size and location of the tumor (thyroidectomy). Additionally, any surrounding lymph nodes where cancer cells have spread are removed by your surgeon.
  • Radioiodine therapy: You consume a pill or liquid for radioiodine therapy with a higher dose of radioactive iodine than used in a radioiodine scan for diagnosis. The radioiodine shrinks and kills cancerous cells in addition to the damaged thyroid gland. Be calm; this procedure is extremely safe. Most of the radioiodine is absorbed by your thyroid gland. There is very little radiation exposure to the rest of your body.
  • Hormone therapy: This treatment blocks the release of hormones that can cause cancer to spread or come back.

Prevent Thyroid cancer

Dr. Sandeep Nayak, from Macsclinic, one of the top oncologist hospitals in India that provides one of the best thyroid tumor treatment in Bangalore says that although you can’t always prevent or predict thyroid cancer, there are certain ways by which you can prevent thyroid cancer, which are as follows:

  • Potassium iodine: Potassium iodide blocks the thyroid gland from absorbing too much radioiodine. As a result, the gland stays healthy. If you were exposed to radiation during a nuclear disaster, such as the 2011 incident at Fukushima, Japan, taking potassium iodide within 24 hours of exposure can lower your risk of developing thyroid cancer.
  • Preventive (prophylactic) surgery: If you have a gene mutation that raises your risk for multiple endocrine neoplasias or medullary thyroid cancer, genetic testing can help you find out. If you possess the problematic gene, you could choose to undergo preventative surgery to remove your thyroid gland before cancer manifests itself.


No matter what kind of cancer it is, getting a diagnosis is frightening. Fortunately, treatment works wonders on the majority of thyroid tumors. The ideal course of action can be discussed with your doctor depending on your thyroid cancer. 

You might need to take synthetic thyroid hormones for the rest of your life after treatment. These hormones assist important bodily processes. Although they typically don’t have noticeable side effects, you’ll still need to go in for monthly examinations to maintain your health.

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